Looms vary considerably in their construction. The following brief descriptions are intended to illustrate the two principal types.
The horizontal loom is constructed parallel to the ground and is the simpler of the two types. It consists of two beams around which the warp threads are wrapped. It is raised slightly off the ground, and the weaver sits on top of the warp threads to weave. This loom is easily portable and can be moved with anunfinished weaving on it. Rugs woven on horizontal looms commonly do not have perfectly equal sides and ends.
The vertical loom is constructed vertical to the ground. It may be made as a free-standing loom that can be leaned against a wall or built permanently in place. The weaver sits in front of the loom to weave. This loom can have complex structural features and is not readily portable. Rugs woven on vertical looms have sides and ends more equal in measurement.
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