Persian carpet ( 2,500 years of patronage) Carpet had been the principal furniture of palaces, homes and tents for the centuries specially, for great civilization like Persia. Skill in carpet weaving was almost coextensive with national life. Nomads have practically always from sheer necessity been carpet weavers and also history shows us that great home had its own establishment. These facts clarify carpet as one of deluxe furniture during the era. The designer-craftsman supplied by the ancient king of Iran, but a radical change in life style towards the end of 19 century resulted in a deep crisis in the economic sector of the carpet, even though Reza Shah. In fact, from the Achaemenian (Hakhamaneshi) until the Pahlavi, the monarchs patronized the production of court carpets, thus raising the statue of the art. The master weavers were able to sell their high quality production not only to the monarch but also to the courtiers and the middle classes. Looking at a Persian carpet is just like to gaze into a world of traditional art with more than 2500 years back. Up to now, the Iranian were one of the first carpet weavers of the ancient civilization. The carpet is the finest and most exquisite form of Persian art. Even today, the Persian associate on with the carpet is as strong as ever. In the other words, this ancient hand craft of Persia express all about Iranian people as their culture, art, tribal women wishes, architecture and etc. Besides being an article of furniture, the carpet was also a form of writing for the illiterate tribesmen, knotted pile and warp together and represent their fortunes, desires and joys. While modern and technological devices are entered to family life of Iranian people similar all around the world, the rich culture of Persian Carpet make it to be attend. It is better to say, an Iranian’s home is bare and soulless without it, a strong rooted bond between the Iranian and their national art. Reference: Jean Brueghel.( 2000).Persian carpet (Iranian carpet) Gathering by Fargol Rokni, a member of editorial staff of Bidabadi Company. Pazyryk Carpet: Among all craft which were discovered up to now, the oldest one is Pazyryk. “Until the discovery of Pazyryk in 1949 by Russian archaeologist Rudenko, the origin of the knotted carpet was attributed to the royal Persian manufactures of the 16th century. The carpet dates back to around the 6th century BC and is named Pazyryk after the site in which it was discovered in the Altai in the ice in funeral chamber of Mongol nomads. It requires researchers to revise the classic hypothesis, for its texture is relatively fine, 30 to 36 knot per square centimeter. Its elaborate design is quite unique. The rectangular back ground composed of 24 square, reminiscent of the Persepolis frescoes, is set centrally in a geometric checker board disposition without being overpowered by the 5 borders. The two main borders show a frieze of stage at pasture and a royal equestrian parade in which horses led by grooms alternate with mounted horses.” Clearly It is a square carpet that were designed with figural and geometrical pattern that was woven by asymmetrical knots. “These are separated by median with stylized geometric elements. On either side, the two exterior and interior borders bear small griffin design. The central geometric elements and the five borders are framed by a thin rectilinear border composed of small mosaic squares alternately red, white and brown on cream back ground. This could be a tribal design. It is probably a commission piece with a structure graphic composition full of symbolism, realism, naturalism and majesty” (page 210, Brueghel) Although, discovering and attributing of Pazyryk to the region of Persia was a revolution in disclosing narration of carpet, there are many obscurity point on it that needs time. Reference: Jean Brueghel ( 2000).Persian carpet (Iranian carpet) Gathering by Fargol Rokni, a member of editorial staff of Bidabadi Company. Design and pattern in carpet (rug): Persia has been described as the home of carpet design. “Design and pattern of Persian carpet has passed through a meandrous adventure until it settled on gradual regulation. Majority of research showed that design and pattern came up with three distinct styles i. e, nomadic, rural and urban. Nomadic style of Persian carpet are woven with specific structure to represent forms and composition based on angular and geometric lines. From Bakhtiary and Qashghaee Gabbe to old Baluch and Afshari rugs are all well-known samples of this style whose motifs still entail further discovery of meanings. Rural carpets also followed the same path through history but was greatly influenced by general forms of Persian carpet for adoption of fine and genuine motifs so that this style cannot readily merge in to the conventional or offered in varying dimensions. Hamadan, Malayer, Chahar Mahal, Farahan and …carpets are representatives of this style. Urban weaving style of Iranian (Persian) carpet which followed the other two, could enjoy skillful share of the famous artisans as Kamaleddin Behzad, Soltan Mohammad, Mir Mousavi, Reza Abbassi, Ghassem Ali, Abdossamad and ten of other Iranian carpet designers that led to achieving invaluable basis whose fulfilment required, technical experience and knowledge. This phenomenon also materialized a series of changes in weaving techniques which later divided into many styles.”(zhouleh,2002,8) “In addition, there are more type of categorized for Persian carpet. Another one is that Persian carpet design divided into two orders or styles, which are distinct and instantly recognizable. This categorized is based on the type of line which is used to design the carpet. They are (I) the rectilinear, and (II) the curvilinear. The design of first category are built up out of three straight lines: horizontal, vertical and diagonal. Design of the second, or curvilinear, order are made up of curved lines- though straight lines are generally introduced to mark off the borders.”(Edwards, 35) Reference: 1. Turaj zhouleh, 2002, Design and Pattern in carpet 2. Cecil Edwards, The Persian Carpet. Gathering by Fargol Rokni, a member of editorial staff in Bidabadi Company. Lotus flower: It is a mythical flower that refers to Mithraism. In fact the flower is a symbol of Mithraism which is represented in the carpets. In west areas it’s named palm or Blue Lotus. Mithraism was the important holy in many countries and ancient civilization. This flower which is used in Persian carpets in different types and name, have seen in shrines of Mithraism in a wide-spread: Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan and etc. Also, it’s depicted by 12 petals which can be a symbol for 12 months of a year. Reference: Maryam Tadayon, 1392, a research about concept of utopia and carpet design. Gathering by Frgol Rokni, a member of editorial staff in Bidabadi Company